[642] That same month, a much publicised trial of accused Jewish industrial wreckers took place in Ukraine. [598] He sent Molotov as his representative to San Francisco to take part in negotiations to form the United Nations, insisting that the Soviets have a place on the Security Council. [655] According to Svetlana, it had been "a difficult and terrible death". [372] This preoccupation with opposing rival leftists concerned Bukharin, who regarded the growth of fascism and the far right across Europe as a far greater threat. L'ange maudit de Staline, à la RTBF . [451] He sought to maintain Soviet neutrality, hoping that a German war against France and Britain would lead to Soviet dominance in Europe. [543] Many Soviet soldiers engaged in looting, pillaging, and rape, both in Germany and parts of Eastern Europe. [904] Twenty six countries officially recognise it under the legal definition of genocide. [377], Within the Soviet Union, there was widespread civic disgruntlement against Stalin's government. [165], — Stalin's editorial in Pravda, October 1917[166], Stalin helped organise the July Days uprising, an armed display of strength by Bolshevik supporters. [360] Socialist realism was promoted throughout the arts,[361] while Stalin personally wooed prominent writers, namely Maxim Gorky, Mikhail Sholokhov, and Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy. [613], Stalin suggested that a unified, but demilitarised, German state be established, hoping that it would either come under Soviet influence or remain neutral. [737] He was born with a webbed left foot, and his left arm had been permanently injured in childhood which left it shorter than his right and lacking in flexibility,[738] which was probably the result of being hit, at the age of 12, by a horse-drawn carriage. Il devient alors le SEUL chef de l’URSS. [772] He was a good organiser,[773] with a strategic mind,[774] and judged others according to their inner strength, practicality, and cleverness. [348], In 1928, Stalin declared that class war between the proletariat and their enemies would intensify as socialism developed. [379] Like its predecessor, this plan was repeatedly amended to meet changing situations; there was for instance an increasing emphasis placed on armament production after Adolf Hitler became German chancellor in 1933. [231] He also believed that the Red Army was ill-prepared to conduct an offensive war and that it would give White Armies a chance to resurface in Crimea, potentially reigniting the civil war. [161] There, Stalin and fellow Bolshevik Lev Kamenev assumed control of Pravda,[162] and Stalin was appointed the Bolshevik representative to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, an influential council of the city's workers. [356] Conservative social policies were promoted to enhance social discipline and boost population growth; this included a focus on strong family units and motherhood, the re-criminalisation of homosexuality, restrictions placed on abortion and divorce, and the abolition of the Zhenotdel women's department. Le régime cherche à imposer son idéologie à l'ensemble de la société aussi bien dans la vie publique que privée. [111] In June, he escaped the village and made it to Kotlas disguised as a woman and from there to Saint Petersburg. [326] Stalin barred kulaks from joining these collectives. Il se fit renvoyer du séminaire à cause de ses idées révolutionnairesl'année suivante. [682] According to scholar Robert Service, Stalin's "few innovations in ideology were crude, dubious developments of Marxism". "[727], Stalin had a soft voice,[728] and when speaking Russian did so slowly, carefully choosing his phrasing. [789] By the 1920s, he was also suspicious and conspiratorial, prone to believing that people were plotting against him and that there were vast international conspiracies behind acts of dissent. [232], In mid-August 1920, the Poles repulsed the Russian advance, and Stalin returned to Moscow to attend the Politburo meeting. [30] He continued writing poetry; five of his poems, on themes such as nature, land and patriotism, were published under the pseudonym of "Soselo" in Ilia Chavchavadze's newspaper Iveria ('Georgia'). Publicly, the cause of death was given as appendicitis; Stalin also concealed the real cause of death from his children. [933] A 2017 Pew Research survey had 57% of Georgians saying he played a positive role in history, compared to 18% of those expressing the same for Mikhail Gorbachev. He went on to edit the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings and protection rackets. [843], Stalin's second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva; theirs was not an easy relationship, and they often fought. [87] Although Stalin held Lenin in deep respect, he was vocal in his disagreement with Lenin's view that the Bolsheviks should field candidates for the forthcoming election to the State Duma; Stalin saw the parliamentary process as a waste of time. [245] The Georgian Communist Party opposed the idea, resulting in the Georgian affair. [149] In the hamlet, Stalin had a relationship with Lidia Pereprygia, who was thirteen at the time and thus a year under the legal age of consent in Tsarist Russia. [341] The USSR underwent a massive economic transformation. [557] Within the Soviet Union he was widely regarded as the embodiment of victory and patriotism. [861] Biographers like Service and Volkogonov have considered him an outstanding and exceptional politician;[862] Montefiore labelled Stalin as "that rare combination: both 'intellectual' and killer", a man who was "the ultimate politician" and "the most elusive and fascinating of the twentieth-century titans". [928][929][930] At the same time, there was a growth in pro-Stalinist literature in Russia, much relying upon the misrepresentation or fabrication of source material. [709] Stalin's doctrine held that socialism could be completed in Russia but that its final victory there could not be guaranteed because of the threat from capitalist intervention. [556], After the war, Stalin was—according to Service—at the "apex of his career". [931], The only part of the former Soviet Union where admiration for Stalin has remained consistently widespread is Georgia, although Georgian attitude has been very divided. [767] Montefiore suggested that this charm was "the foundation of Stalin's power in the Party". Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. « Mais les distributeurs ont catégoriquement rejeté cette proposition », a dit le ministre. [344] The last elements of workers' control over industry were removed, with factory managers increasing their authority and receiving privileges and perks;[345] Stalin defended wage disparity by pointing to Marx's argument that it was necessary during the lower stages of socialism. [227] Along the Southwest Front, he became determined to conquer Lviv; in focusing on this goal he disobeyed orders in early August to transfer his troops to assist Mikhail Tukhachevsky's forces that were attacking Warsaw. [648] There, he emphasised what he regarded as leadership qualities necessary in the future and highlighted the weaknesses of various potential successors, particularly Molotov and Mikoyan. Assis dans le jardin de Cecilienhof à Potsdam, Allemagne, de gauche à droite : le premier ministre britannique Clement Attlee, le Président Harry S. Truman, et le premier ministre soviétique Joseph Staline. [242], Stalin's native Caucasus posed a particular problem because of its highly multi-ethnic mix. [646] [392] The Soviet government believed that food supplies should be prioritized for the urban workforce;[393] for Stalin, the fate of Soviet industrialisation was far more important than the lives of the peasantry. [145], In February 1913, Stalin was arrested while back in Saint Petersburg. His gang ambushed the armed convoy in Yerevan Square with gunfire and home-made bombs. Toute activité de la société est contrôlée par l’État et toute opposition à cet État est éliminée. [331] Famine broke out in many areas,[332] with the Politburo frequently ordering the distribution of emergency food relief to these regions. [690] Service argued that Stalin's Marxism was imbued with a great deal of Russian nationalism. [549] On 8 August, in between the U.S. atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet army invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria and defeated the Kwantung Army. [652] Svetlana and Vasily were called to the dacha on 2 March; the latter was drunk and angrily shouted at the doctors, resulting in him being sent home. [691] During the period of his revolutionary activity, Stalin regarded some of Lenin's views and actions as being the self-indulgent activities of a spoiled émigré, deeming them counterproductive for those Bolshevik activists based within the Russian Empire itself. [464] The two states continued trading, undermining the British blockade of Germany. [305] His growing influence was reflected in the naming of various locations after him; in June 1924 the Ukrainian mining town of Yuzovka became Stalino,[306] and in April 1925, Tsaritsyn was renamed Stalingrad on the order of Mikhail Kalinin and Avel Enukidze. Staline, qui s'inquiète de la puissance de Beria, décide en 1946 une profonde réorganisation de la police politique, des services secrets et de l’administration du Goulag. [118], In January 1912, while Stalin was in exile, the first Bolshevik Central Committee was elected at the Prague Conference. Using the idea of collective responsibility as a basis, Stalin's government abolished their autonomous republics and between late 1943 and 1944 deported the majority of their populations to Central Asia and Siberia. More than for any other historical figure, even Gandhi or Churchill, a biography of Stalin... eventually comes to approximate a history of the world. [611] The 1947 Hungarian elections were also rigged, with the Hungarian Working People's Party taking control. [563] He was quoted in Pravda on a daily basis and pictures of him remained pervasive on the walls of workplaces and homes. C’était maintenant au tour de la Pologne - et Hitler avait cruellement besoin d’une garantie que l’URSSn’attaquerait pas l’Allemag… Cette page dresse la liste des ministres chargés des affaires étrangères en Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, de la révolution d'Octobre (1917) à la disparition de l’URSS (1991), officiant au ministère des Affaires étrangères (Union soviétique). Stalin had called for the Chinese Communists to ally themselves with Kuomintang (KMT) nationalists, viewing a Communist-Kuomintang alliance as the best bulwark against Japanese imperial expansionism. [562] In 1947, it brought out a second edition of his official biography, which eulogised him to a greater extent than its predecessor. [394] Grain exports, which were a major means of Soviet payment for machinery, declined heavily. [201] Lenin eventually convinced the other senior Bolsheviks of his viewpoint, resulting in the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. Le partenaire de Staline surenchérit à 5 ♥ et le troisième bondit à 6♠. It nevertheless clashed with established Bolshevik views that socialism could not be established in one country but could only be achieved globally through the process of world revolution. [515], By November 1942, the Soviets had begun to repulse the important German strategic southern campaign and, although there were 2.5 million Soviet casualties in that effort, it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front. [735] To appear taller, he wore stacked shoes, and stood on a small platform during parades. [163] In April, Stalin came third in the Bolshevik elections for the party's Central Committee; Lenin came first and Zinoviev came second. During a brief period back in Tiflis, Stalin and the Outfit planned the ambush of a mail coach, during which most of the group—although not Stalin—were apprehended by the authorities. [417] State repression intensified after Kirov's death;[418] Stalin instigated this, reflecting his prioritisation of security above other considerations. [645] The amount of written material that he produced also declined. [296] The factionalist arguments continued, with Stalin threatening to resign in October and then December 1926 and again in December 1927. [582], In the post-war period there were often food shortages in Soviet cities,[583] and the USSR experienced a major famine from 1946 to 1947. [277] Stalin had much contact with young party functionaries,[278] and the desire for promotion led many provincial figures to seek to impress Stalin and gain his favour. [870], Stalin's Soviet Union has been characterised as a totalitarian state,[871] with Stalin its authoritarian leader. [396] In 1938, The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), colloquially known as the Short Course, was released;[397] Conquest later referred to it as the "central text of Stalinism". Stalin, Trotsky, Sverdlov, and Lenin lived at the Kremlin. [17] In 1886, they moved into the house of a family friend, Father Christopher Charkviani. [542] Although concealing his desires from the other Allied leaders, Stalin placed great emphasis on capturing Berlin first, believing that this would enable him to bring more of Europe under long-term Soviet control. [39] He also read Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist Karl Marx. Ce titre est porté jusqu’en 1945, date à laquelle Staline décide de rétablir le titre de ministre, et le commissaire du peuple aux Affaires étrangères devient ministre des Affaires étrangères. [707] Following Lenin's death, Stalin contributed to the theoretical debates within the Communist Party, namely by developing the idea of "Socialism in One Country". [353] Aware that the ethnic Russian majority may have concerns about being ruled by a Georgian,[354] he promoted ethnic Russians throughout the state hierarchy and made the Russian language compulsory throughout schools and offices, albeit to be used in tandem with local languages in areas with non-Russian majorities. [837] Stalin married twice and had several offspring. [875] Montefiore argued that while Stalin initially ruled as part of a Communist Party oligarchy, in 1934 the Soviet government transformed from this oligarchy into a personal dictatorship,[876] with Stalin only becoming "absolute dictator" between March and June 1937, when senior military and NKVD figures were eliminated. [457] In May 1939, Germany began negotiations with the Soviets, proposing that Eastern Europe be divided between the two powers. [370] After Bukharin's departure, Stalin placed the Communist International under the administration of Dmitry Manuilsky and Osip Piatnitsky. Quiconque s’opposant à lui, passe devant un tribunal improvisé, Troïka, et est exécuté ou envoyé en Sibérie dans les goulags. Il établit progressivement, après la mort de Lénine, un régime totalitaire qui se renforce jusqu’à sa mort en 1953. [65] He made two escape attempts: On the first, he made it to Balagansk before returning due to frostbite. [260] Another disagreement came over the Georgian affair, with Lenin backing the Georgian Central Committee's desire for a Georgian Soviet Republic over Stalin's idea of a Transcaucasian one. [456] On 3 May 1939, Stalin replaced his western-oriented foreign minister Maxim Litvinov with Vyacheslav Molotov. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori,[3] then part of the Tiflis Governorate of the Russian Empire and home to a mix of Georgian, Armenian, Russian, and Jewish communities. [414] This mixed approach began to change in December 1934, after prominent party member Sergey Kirov was murdered. [350] The first major show trial in the USSR was the Shakhty Trial of 1928, in which several middle-class "industrial specialists" were convicted of sabotage. [169] In Lenin's absence, Stalin continued editing Pravda and served as acting leader of the Bolsheviks, overseeing the party's Sixth Congress, which was held covertly. A Welsh journalist breaks the news in the … [557] [135] Lenin, who encouraged Stalin to write an article on the subject,[136] wanted to attract those groups to the Bolshevik cause by offering them the right of secession from the Russian state, but also hoped they would remain part of a future Bolshevik-governed Russia. [711], Stalin viewed nations as contingent entities which were formed by capitalism and could merge into others. Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox Church to retain the churches it had opened during the war. [227], Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the Polish–Soviet War broke out in early 1920, with the Poles invading Ukraine and taking Kyiv on 7 May. After the heist, Stalin settled in Baku with his wife and son. [572] Post-war Soviet society was more tolerant than its pre-war phase in various respects. [739], During his youth, Stalin cultivated a scruffy appearance in rejection of middle-class aesthetic values. [780], Stalin was ruthless,[781] temperamentally cruel,[782] and had a propensity for violence high even among the Bolsheviks. [921] After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the first President of the new Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, continued Gorbachev's denunciation of Stalin but added to it a denunciation of Lenin. [119] Shortly after the conference, Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev decided to co-opt Stalin to the committee. We must close that gap in ten years. [69] During his exile, the RSDLP had split between Vladimir Lenin's "Bolsheviks" and Julius Martov's "Mensheviks". [45], In October 1899, Stalin began work as a meteorologist at a Tiflis observatory. [476] Although de facto head of government for a decade and a half, Stalin concluded that relations with Germany had deteriorated to such an extent that he needed to deal with the problem as de jure head of government as well: on 6 May, Stalin replaced Molotov as Premier of the Soviet Union. [806] Stalin also enjoyed watching films late at night at cinemas installed in the Kremlin and his dachas. [290] He was supported in this by Bukharin, who like Stalin believed that the Left Opposition's proposals would plunge the Soviet Union into instability. [268], Lenin died in January 1924. de plus en plus nombreux mais leur niveau de vie est faible. [474] After the Tripartite Pact was signed by Axis Powers Germany, Japan, and Italy in October 1940, Stalin proposed that the USSR also join the Axis alliance. [496] Responding to the invasion, the Soviets intensified their industrial enterprises in central Russia, focusing almost entirely on production for the military. The existing government of landlords and capitalists must be replaced by a new government, a government of workers and peasants. [558] Aware that these countries had been pushed toward socialism through invasion rather than by proletarian revolution, Stalin referred to them not as "dictatorships of the proletariat" but as "people's democracies", suggesting that in these countries there was a pro-socialist alliance combining the proletariat, peasantry, and lower middle-class. [505] Comintern was dissolved in 1943,[506] and Stalin encouraged foreign Marxist–Leninist parties to emphasise nationalism over internationalism to broaden their domestic appeal. [763] Other historians linked his brutality not to any personality trait, but to his unwavering commitment to the survival of the Soviet Union and the international Marxist–Leninist cause. [564], Despite his strengthened international position, Stalin was cautious about internal dissent and desire for change among the population. [406] At the Communist International's 7th Congress, held in July–August 1935, the Soviet government encouraged Marxist-Leninists to unite with other leftists as part of a popular front against fascism. [580] In 1949, he brought Nikita Khrushchev from Ukraine to Moscow, appointing him a Central Committee secretary and the head of the city's party branch. [612], In October 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong took power in China. [652], Stalin's death was announced on 6 March. [92], Stalin married Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at Senaki in July 1906. [40] Stalin devoted himself to Marx's socio-political theory, Marxism,[41] which was then on the rise in Georgia, one of various forms of socialism opposed to the empire's governing tsarist authorities. [575] Capital punishment was abolished in 1947 but reinstalled in 1950. [937] In a 2016 Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll, 38% of respondents had a negative attitude to Stalin, 26% a neutral one and 17% a positive, with 19% refusing to answer. Le ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé met en œuvre les politiques relatives à la solidarité, à la cohésion sociale, à la santé publique, à l'organisation du système de santé et à la protection sociale. The US also offered financial assistance as part of the Marshall Plan on the condition that they opened their markets to trade, aware that the Soviets would never agree. 6 December] 1878[2] – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who ruled the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. [651] He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. [611] At the second Cominform conference, held in Bucharest in June 1948, East European communist leaders all denounced Tito's government, accusing them of being fascists and agents of Western capitalism. [537], In February 1945, the three leaders met at the Yalta Conference. [220], The Bolsheviks won the Russian civil war by the end of 1919. [88] In April 1906, Stalin attended the RSDLP Fourth Congress in Stockholm; this was his first trip outside the Russian Empire. [429] In July 1937, the Politburo ordered a purge of "anti-Soviet elements" in society, targeting anti-Stalin Bolsheviks, former Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, priests, ex-White Army soldiers, and common criminals. [610] In March 1948, Stalin launched an anti-Tito campaign, accusing the Yugoslav communists of adventurism and deviating from Marxist–Leninist doctrine. [543], In April 1945, the Red Army seized Berlin, Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered in May. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. [25] Stalin faced several severe health problems: An 1884 smallpox infection left him with facial scars;[26] and at age 12 he was seriously injured when he was hit by a phaeton, likely the cause of a lifelong disability in his left arm. [102] In November 1907, his wife died of typhus,[103] and he left his son with her family in Tiflis. [508] While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south, Stalin considered this to be a flanking move in a renewed effort to take Moscow. [181] Stalin backed Lenin's decision not to form a coalition with the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionary Party, although they did form a coalition government with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries. [569] It was established that 1,710 Soviet towns and 70,000 villages had been destroyed. [520] In 1941, the London Philharmonic Orchestra performed a concert to celebrate his birthday,[521] and in 1942, Time magazine named him "Man of the Year". Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes unacceptable in the position of General Secretary. [355] Nationalist sentiment among ethnic minorities was suppressed. [501] He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression, notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna Akhmatova and Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more widely. U.S. led forces pushed the North Koreans back. [144] Stalin retained the name for the rest of his life, possibly because it was used on the article that established his reputation among the Bolsheviks. [414] In May 1933, he released from prison many convicted of minor offenses, ordering the security services not to enact further mass arrests and deportations.